Ramadan: 2nd Ramadan, 1438A.H
#Those Who are not Obliged to Fast.
The following groups of people are not required to fast and they do not make up for the missed days of fasting. Likewise, they are not required to do anything as a compensation or atonement for missing the fast.
1. The Person who is Insane:
Fasting is not obligatory for the insane because of their inability to understand what they are doing. Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon Him) said: “The pen (that records deeds and sins) is lifted (from writing) for three people:
i) the insane until they regain their sanity,
ii) those who are sleeping until they awaken, and iii)the young until they reach puberty.”
(Ahmad, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmithi)
Those who have not reached the age of puberty are not required to fast as evidenced by the Hadith mentioned above. However, it is recommended that their guardians encourage them to fast so that they become accustomed to it at an early age. They may fast as long as they are able and then break the fast if it becomes too difficult for them.
#Those who must make up Missed Fasting:
There are some persons who are fallowed to abstain from fasting and make up for it by fasting later. They are as follows:
1. The ill Person:
A person who is sick, but not terminally ill, is allowed to abstain from fasting and is required to make up for missed days. Allah(S.W.T) said: “… but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days.” (2:184)
2. The Traveler:
If one travels as far as the distance that requires shortening the prayer, it is allowed for him to abstain from fasting, but he is required to make up for missed days. This is proven in the previous Verse of the Qur’an.
3. Pregnant and Breast-feeding Women:
Such women are allowed to abstain from fasting if they fear for their health, their infants, fetuses, or both. Allah’s Messenger (Peace be upon Him) said: “Allah has relieved the traveler of the fast and a part of the prayer, and has relieved the pregnant and the breast-feeding woman from the fast.” (Ahmad and As-Sunan Collections).
The pregnant and breast-feeding women make up for the missed days of fasting when the circumstances that allowed them to abstain have ended.
#Those Who Are not Obliged to Fast but Must Pay some Compensation.
Elderly men and women, the terminally ill (who have no hope of being cured of their illness) and all those in comparable situations who find it difficult to fast are allowed to abstain from fasting. They do not have to make up for the missed days, but are required to feed a poor person a Mudd of food for each day of fasting that they missed. Allah (S.W.T) says:
“And as for those who can fast (but) with difficulty (e.g. an old person, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a poor person (for every day of their missed fast).” (2:184).
Edited by: Liftedhabeeb